Movies are special effects.
They've always been special effects.
From Méliès, to Harryhausen...
...visual effects create the magic
that makes people want to go to the movies.
Because they can see things they can't see
any other way.
Take a look.
BARRY JENKINS: We all start with an empty frame
and anything is possible.
But how can we create the thing the audience sees that wasn't actually there?
As audiences get smarter, wiser, sort of see through the illusion,
that bar just raises.
So how do we do this now? How do we make this look great?
I leave it to the geniuses at ILM.
Most places are a little bit like The Wizard of Oz,
where you pull back the curtain, you're like, "Oh!"
But Industrial Light & Magic is that rare magic trick
where the technique is as good as the illusion.
It is this hive of creativity and brilliance
and also incredible groundbreaking technical wizardry.
They're pushing technology forward and exploring it.
他们让特效变得 更刺♥激♥ 更逼真 更神奇
They keep making it even more exciting, more realistic, more magical.
It's right there in the name of the company.
(THEME MUSIC PLAYING)
Pick up 601, please.
Conrad, pick up 601.
-WOMAN: Pull in your seat a little bit? -This way?
WOMAN: Yeah, there was a reflection on your glasses. So we might actually...
是的 刚才眼镜上有反光 所以我们…
Well, the history of ILM goes way back.
And when we started the first film,
I investigated all of the optical houses and special effects people,
and realized there was nobody around and no company around that could really do
the things that I wanted to do on that picture.
So, I realized that I was gonna have to start a company
and put together a whole group of people
that would just be specifically for making Star Wars.
NARRATOR: Luke Skywalker was just a farm boy,
until he received a mysterious message from a princess.
Help me, Obi-Wan Kenobi.
-She's beautiful. -Here's where the fun begins.
NARRATOR: Twentieth Century Fox presents
the most extraordinary motion picture of all time...
Here they come.
NARRATOR: May the force be with you in Star Wars.
GEORGE: When I was writing Star Wars,
I spent two years
trying to find the story, trying to find the script.
I thought spaceships, dogfights in space, that's a great idea.
I said, I want to do that. Only I want to do it like a space opera.
Like Buck Rogers and Flash Gordon.
But it will really have movement, it will be kinetic.
I'm an energetic filmmaker.
《美国风情画》 乔治·卢卡斯导演 1973年
《五百年后》 乔治·卢卡斯导演 1971年
I like speed.
At the time, the last real science fiction film was 2001.
《2001太空漫游》 斯坦利·库布里克导演 1968年
Which is brilliant, and the way it was made was brilliant.
But the shots were all long takes and very slow.
于是我四处寻找 特效公♥司♥ 视觉效果公♥司♥
So I looked around for special effects houses, visual effects houses,
and nobody could do what I wanted to do for Star Wars.
So the big question was, "How are we going to do the effects?"
I met John Dykstra.
He was working with visual effects, mostly on commercials.
And I realized that there was a little cabal of secret special effects people.
Some of them worked in commercials,
some of them were just wishing, some of them were making home movies,
but they all knew each other.
So and so can do that, and I know somebody can do this.
And it really was this kind of gang of outsiders.
And so through John Dykstra we tapped into that world.
ANCHORWOMAN: Good morning, America.
In the world of film and television, even our fantasies have been modernized.
Instead of wizards and magicians, the people who make our dreams come true
are now called special effects designers.
这些新时代的巫师 使用电脑 计算器和特制摄影机
These new wizards use computers, calculators, and special cameras.
With these tools and a generous supply of good, old-fashioned imagination,
John Dykstra created the fantastic effects scenes for Star Wars.
John. No one says "One day I'm going to be a special effects designer."
What led up to this?
Oh, a lot of fooling around.
JOHN: I am definitely involved with machines. I like machines a lot.
I always played with cars and things like that.
I like physics.
Always liked photography.
So it was sort of a situation where I just brought
all of my favorite things together, all of my hobbies,
and made one big hobby out of it.
Explain to me how you take a scene from your mind to the screen.
I'm basically a lucky guy.
When I signed up for college, I didn't have a major.
I just was going to school because they had accepted me.
The counselor who I was assigned based on my last name
turned out to be the head of the industrial design department.
So I went to school in industrial design, truly a fluke.
From school I had a friend who was working with Doug Trumbull,
who had done visual effects for 2001: A Space Odyssey.
And Doug was looking for model makers
and people who could do design work.
So I segued from school to going to work at Trumbull Film s.
I started on Silent Running.
I drew designs for the ships,
then built the models for the ships
and then photographed the models for the ships.
It was an intense, immersive education.
Coming to work was fun.
Then I was approached by Gary Kurtz, who was a producer for George Lucas,
and he wanted to talk about the visual effects for a movie.
I was given the script,
and I go, "How bad can this be? It's a dogfight in space, right?"
So I came to their offices,
did a lot of hand flying, did a lot of talking about moving camera
因为我会开飞机 我喜欢速度 我会在飞机上安装摄像头
because I'm a pilot and I love speed and I've been strapping cameras
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